Jozef Wesolowski, a former archbishop and Vatican envoy to the Dominican Republic, has died before he could be tried for child sex offences.
His trial in the Vatican was adjourned in July after he was taken ill.
He was accused of paying for sex with children in the Dominican Republic.
Wesolowski, 66, would have been the first high-ranking church official to be tried on paedophile charges. His case was seen as a test of the Vatican’s pledge to stamp out abuse.
Last year, the Pope compared the actions of those who commit such crimes to a “satanic mass”.
Wesolowski was charged with abusing children in the Dominican Republican between 2008-13.
He was also charged with possession of child pornography, dating from his return to Rome in 2013.
The charges have been seen as part of a crackdown by Pope Francis on clerics and employees of the Church who exploit minors.